CPR & First Aid Review
is no substitute for a course in CPR and First Aid certification.
This section is for those who have already taken a course in CPR and
First Aid. It provides a review of how to save lives. Many people
who take a course, forget a large portion of what they've learned,
emphasizing the importance of review courses. We suggest you read
through this information to refresh your memory, and if it sounds
unfamiliar, please sign up for a certified course. By itself, this
information does not constitute adequate training for CPR and first
aid. Only a fraction of emergency situations possible is reviewed
within this material. If you have not taken a course, please contact
your Red Cross Chapter for further information on courses they offer.
Injury can result from rescue techniques performed incorrectly, so
read this information carefully. If you are presented with a situation
and can't remember the specifics, remember this...
A person can only survive for 4 to 6 minutes, once their heart or
breathing has stopped. If you have the most knowledge of CPR and first
aid compared to anyone else present at the time, then use it. CPR
and first aid training could save someone you love.
If you find a victim lying
on the floor...
- Tap the victim and shout "are you OK?!"
- Shout for help
If the victim is unconscious
- Roll the victim onto his or her back.
- Move the victim as one unit without twisting
- It's easier if the arm they're rolling
toward is stretched above their head.
- Pull their hip and shoulder initially.
- Then support their head and hip as they
complete the roll.
- Reposition their arms along their sides.
- Open their airway.
- Tilt their head back with one hand on their
- Lift their chin forward with the other hand.
- Check for breathing.
- Bend over victim.
- Place your ear just above the victim's
mouth and nose to listen and feel for breathing. This is the only
sure indicator for breathing. Look at the chest for the movement
If victim is not breathing...
- Give 2 breaths
- Sustain the victim's head-tilted chin-lifted
- Pinch the victim's nose.
- Give 2 breaths (1 to 1.5 seconds per breath)
watching the chest rise and listening for escaping air after each
If air will not go in...
- Retilt head and lift chin.
- Give two full breaths.
If air still won't go in...
- Give 6 to 10 abdominal thrusts.
- Straddle the victim's thighs.
- Place the heal of one hand against the middle
of the victim's abdomenÉ
Just above the navel
Well below the lower tip of the sternum (breast bone)
- Place your other hand on top of the first
hand with your fingers pointed toward the victim's head.
- Thrust your hands upward and into the victim's
- Do a finger sweep.
- Kneel beside the victim's head.
- Grasp the victim's tongue and lower
jaw together and lift the jaw.
- Slide the index finger of the other hand...
Into the mouth
Down along the inside of the cheek
Deep into the throat to the base of the tongue
With a hooking action attempt to dislodge the object and pull
it into the mouth from where you can remove it.
- Open the airway and give two full breaths.
- Continue these three steps until the obstruction
Note: If the victim is
in the late stages of pregnancy and or is greatly overweight use
chest thrusts instead of abdominal thrusts. Chest thrusts compress
the chest in the same way as chest compressions used for a cardiac
arrest, compressing the chest 1.5 to 2 inches.
If air goes in...
- Check for a pulse.
- Sustain tilted head with one hand.
- Place middle fingers on the Adams apple.
- Slide fingers down toward you into the groove
between the throat and the muscle at the side of the neck.
- Feel for a pulse from 5 to 10 seconds.
- Call 911 or have someone else call.
- Tell the person calling whether the victim
has a pulse and/or is breathing.
No breathing has pulse...
- Give one breath every 5 seconds (1 to 1.5
sec. Per breath).
- Check for breathing between breaths with
- After every minute (about 12 breaths) check
the victim's pulse.
- Check for breathing for 3 seconds.
- Continue as necessary.
Is breathing, no pulse...
- Find the correct hand position for compressions
- Kneel facing the victim's chest.
- Find the lower end of the victim's rib
- Run your fingers along the edge of the ribcage
to the notch were it meets the sternum (breast bone).
- Place the heel of your other hand 2 finger
breadths above the notch.
- Place the heel of the hand you used to find
the notch on top of the heel of the hand you've placed on
- Apply chest compressions, 80 to 100 per
- Keep your fingers off the chest.
- Straighten your arms and lock your elbows.
- Push straight down using the weight of your
body in a smooth motion.
- Compressing the sternum 1.5 to 2 inches.
- Release pressure completely while maintaining
hand position. Repeat.
No breathing, no pulse...
- Find the correct hand position for compressions.
- Give 15 compressions at the rate of 80
to 100 per minute.
- Count out loud "1 and 2 and 3 and..."
- Tilt head and lift chin.
- Give 2 full breaths.
- Repeat these steps for 4 cycles of 15 compressions
and 2 breaths.
- After 4 cycles, check for a pulse for 5
If there is still no pulse...
- Give 2 breaths and continue the 15 compressions
and 2 breaths cycle.
If you do find a pulse...
- Check for breathing for 3 to 5 seconds.
If there's no breathing...
If victim is breathing...
- Keep airway open and monitor breathing
Signs of choking
- Coughing weekly
- Making a high pitched sound
- Unable to speak, breathe or cough forcefully
- Grabbing one's
If the victim is standing or sitting and
looks like he/she is choking...
- Ask if they are choking.
- Tell the victim you know CPR and offer
- Tell someone to call 911.
- Perform the Heimlich maneuver.
- Wrap your arms around the victim's waist.
- Make a fist with one hand.
- Place the thumb side of your fist against
the middle of the victim's abdomenÉ
Just above the navel
Well below the breastbone
- Grab your fist with the other hand.
- Quickly thrust your fist upward and into
- Repeat thrust until object is cleared.
Note: If the person is
in the late stages of pregnancy or is too large for you to reach
around them use a chest thrust.
- Stand behind and slide your arms under their
- Make a fist and place the thumb side on
the middle of the sternum (breast bone), away from the lower tip
of the bone.
- Grab your fist and thrust backward.
- Repeat until airway obstruction is cleared.
of a heart attack...
The earlier someone calls 911 and the earlier action is taken, the
better the chances for survival! So if someone is experiencing chest
discomfort or pain using the following descriptive words, take action
- Heavy pain in the chest spreading to theÉ
- Shortness of breath
- Denial of having a heart attack
What to do for a heart attack victim...
- Call for help. Order
the victim to...
Stop what they are doing
Sit or lie down in a comfortable position
- Have a person call 911
or if you're alone make the call yourself.
- Loosen restrictive clothing.
- Ask the victim for information...
Has this happened before?
Location of the pain
How long the pain has occurred
Characteristics of the pain (dull, heavy, sharp)
If the heart stops beating causing the victim
to pass out
- Perform CPR immediately.
Breathing may stop as well.
Treating a wound
Uncontrollable bleeding that does not clot can kill. Blood pouring
or spurting from a wound is especially dangerous.
Note: Tourniquets are
no longer used, unless you are the only person around and you need
your hands free for survival, as in pulling a shark attack victim
To reduce your risk of
acquiring a blood born disease during treatment, always use a barrier
between your skin and the victim's blood. (The victim's
hand, saran wrap, gloves, or a cloth for example.) Avoid bringing
your hands close to your mouth, nose or eyes. Wash your hands immediately
after providing care.
To control external bleeding...
- Cover the wound with
a dressing using a sterile gauze. If none is available
use a clean cloth or pad to protect the wound from germs.
- Place your hand over the dressing and apply
- Elevate the wound
above the heart unless there is a broken bone in the same area.
- Wrap a bandage tightly over the dressing
to keep pressure on the wound.
- If blood soaks threw,
add more pads. Do not remove blood soaked pads.
- Continue to monitor the
patient's condition, until Emergency Technicians arrive.
If an extremity like a finger is sliced
- Wrap the object in sterile
gauze, or a clean cloth if no gauze is available.
- Place the wrapped object in a plastic bag.
- Surround the bag with ice.
- Go to the emergency room immediately with
Shock is a condition in which the circulatory system fails to provide
the body with oxygen rich blood, causing failure of vital organs
such as the brain, heart and lungs. Shock results from sudden illness,
injury and emotional stress.
Symptoms of shock include...
- Increased heart rate
- Weakened pulse
- Increased breathing rate
- Pale/bluish complexion
- Cool moist skin
- Nausea and vomiting
- Loss of consciousness
If shock occurs
If you don't suspect head or neck injuries
or broken hip or leg bones...
- Position the victim to lie on his/her back.
- Elevate the legs 12
inches using blankets, books or some other object.
If you do suspect head or neck injuries...
- Do not move the victim
unless there is immediate danger from fire, toxic fumes,
heavy traffic, electrical wires, or deep swift moving water.
- If you are forced to
move the victim for one of these reasons, try
not to bend or twist the victim's body.
Keep the victim's body temperature at
a normal level
- If they are heating up provide shade and
- If they are cold, provide blankets
- Do not give the victim
food or drink
If the victim has trouble breathing
- Elevate the head and back
- Support them in a semi-reclining
position using blankets, pillows, boxes, etc.
If the victim vomits
- Lift their arms above their head
- Roll the victim toward the side of the
- Allow the vomit to drain
from the mouth
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