Mouth & Pharynx

mouth and pharynx

User's Manual
Amazing Facts
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The first tools of digestion used to tear and chew food into pieces, in order to expose more surface area to the saliva and to allow the food pieces to pass through the esophagus.

A digestive and lubricating solution composed of salt, water, mucus, and amylase. It is produced within three pairs of salivary glands in the head, and is secreted through salivary ducts, which open directly into the mouth.


  • Dissolves food molecules so they can react with chemoreceptors on the tongue, which provides us with the sensation of taste.
  • Moistens and lubricates food to aide swallowing.
  • Contains the enzyme amylase, which digests (breaks down) starchy foods.
  • Saliva continues to dissolve and digest food as it travels into and through the stomach.

An extraordinary muscle covered with taste receptors that is used to manipulate food in the mouth.


  • Taste buds on the surface of the tongue detect the flavor of food. Your brain induces a craving for food, based on what your body needs or sometimes unfortunately on what it thinks your body needs. Taste buds also warn you when food becomes rotten.
  • The tongue, as a muscle, is extremely coordinated, supplied with a rich network of nerves. This feature allows your tongue to manipulate food in large number of ways. The tongue can clean your teeth. It can smash the food against the roof of the mouth. It can place food in between the teeth for chewing. It can force a safe amount of food and saliva to the back of your throat for swallowing. Without a tongue, your food would not make it passed your mouth.


A muscular section of the gut, providing a pathway from the mouth into the esophagus. The larynx, which contains your voice box, branches off the front of the pharynx. When swallowing a muscular, mucous membrane-covered flap of cartilage called the epiglottis closes the opening to the larynx to prevent food from entering your windpipe. Food is then pushed into the esophagus using a process called peristalsis; muscles wrapped around the digestive tube automatically squeeze just behind the food and loosen just in front of the food causing the food to travel through the digestive tract somewhat like toothpaste through a tube. This contraction and relaxation causes the food mixed with digestive juices to flow in a peristaltic wave through the gut.

User's Manual

What Causes Cavities?

  • Dry mouth: less saliva to wash away bacteria
  • High bacteria levels due to lack of care
  • Available sugar for bacteria to digest into harmful acids Just think, the more sweets you eat, the more you're feeding the bacteria growing in your mouth, and the more sugar the bacteria eat the more acid they excrete that breaks down your teeth.
  • Foods that stick to your teeth, are not easily removed especially in hard to reach spaces. Thus they may supply a longer food supply for bacteria.

Recipe for beautiful long lasting teeth:
If you want to walk out of your house every morning feeling like you walked out of a dentist's cleaning, try this...

  1. Stop eating sweets and stop eating sticky foods! Eat something good for you!
  2. Use the Sonicare sonic toothbrush twice a day to blast plaque with sonic waves and to make sure you brush for the dentist recommended time period (2 minutes) as signaled by this amazing toothbrush device. Make sure you use a toothpaste with triclosan to prevent gingivitis and fluoride to prevent cavities, plaque, and tarter build-up (we recommend "Colgate Total".) (Baking soda is overrated)
  3. After dinner, before hitting the sac, floss between all teeth and behind your last molars with "Glide" floss. This floss is less likely to strip into pieces while severing your fingers and is more durable so you only need one piece for your whole mouth.
  4. Rinse your mouth with a bacteria killing antiseptic. We use "Tarter Control Listerine" because "it kills the bacteria that causes bad breath, plaque and gingivitis."
  5. If you think you're at particular risk for cavities or are extremely terrified of a dentist's drill, then use a fluoride rinse right before bed to strengthen your teeth with a coat of fluoride. Do not rinse it out with water. We recommend "Act Anticavity Fluoride Rinse."
  6. Finally visit your dentist for a cleaning and checkup every 6 months.

It sounds like a long list but if you want to keep your teeth and avoid root canals, it's only a small 5 minute daily sacrifice and it feels terrific. So go ahead pamper yourself.

SMACK! OH @#$%&*! knocked my tooth out!
To prevent this from occurring in the first place...

  • When biking or skating always wear a helmet.
  • During contact sports always wear a mouth guard.
  • When driving always use your seatbelt.

Whack! Too late for prevention! Any trauma should be reported to your dentist. If the tooth is dislodged...

  • Remain calm and collected. Getting all pissed off will waste precious time.
  • Do not scrub or clean the tooth.
  • Gently rinse the tooth leaving any tissue on the tooth.
  • Place the tooth back in its place and bite down on a clean cloth.
  • If you are unable to return the tooth to your mouth, place it in a small container of milk.
  • You and your tooth must get to the dentist within 30 minutes. If you do so, your tooth might be saved to remain normal and healthy.

Sport Mouth Guards:
In addition to keeping your teeth intact, mouth guards protect against...

  • Concussions
  • Cerebral hemorrhages
  • Jaw fractures
  • Neck injuries
  • Laceration & bruising of the lips & cheeks

You should wear a mouth guard if you play a contact sport such as:

  • Football
  • Basketball
  • Softball
  • Wrestling
  • Lacrosse
  • Rugby
  • Martial arts sparring or competition
  • Boxing/kick boxing

For an effective mouth guard, make sure you get one that you can mold to your teeth, or if you're real serious about protecting your teeth, your dentist might provide a more expensive custom made mouth guard.

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Related Info

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Amazing Facts

  • The hardest material in the human body is the white enamel on your teeth.
  • Your mouth makes 1.2 quarts of saliva daily.
  • Your mouth is the fastest healing tissue in your body thanks to a growth factor existing in the saliva of mammals.
  • Enzymes in the mouth only digest starchy foods.
  • Dental plaque begins to develop only six hours after brushing.
  • The salivary glands pour 1 to 1/2 liter of water into the digestive tract daily.
  • The strongest muscle of the body is the masseter muscle used for chewing.

Related Links

Appearance: Teeth



Glands involved in digestion